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Andy Warhol Chronology
by Gary Comenas

1928 - 1959

(An earlier version of this chronology was displayed at the"Wall to Wall Warhol" exhibition (June 23 - August 27, 2006) at the Oakville Galleries, Ontario Canada)

Andy Warhol is born and does not suffer from dyslexia. Andy Warhol's father's gallbladder is removed. Andy Warhol gets chorea or St. Vitus' Dance. Andy Warhol gets a camera. Andy Warhol graduates from Holmes. Andy Warhol's father dies. And Warhol graduates from Schenley High School and attends Carnegie Tech. Andy Warhol moves to New York. First performances of the Living Theatre. Holly Woodlawn moves from Puerto Rico to the Bronx. Andy Warhol avoids the draft. Andy Warhol does his first illustration for Harper's Bazaar. Andy Warhol wins an award for The Nation's Nightmare. Andy Warhol shows Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote at the Hugo Gallery. The Tanager Gallery opens and rejects work by Warhol. Andy Warhol exhibits at the Loft Gallery. Valerie Solanas graduates. Andy Warhol is hired by I. Miller. Holly Woodlawn moves to South Beach. Andy Warhol meets Charles Lisanby. Andy Warhol is rejected again by the Tanager Gallery. Andy Warhol does the Boy Book. Andy Warhol is profiled in Mademoiselle. A drawing by Warhol is exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art. Andy Warhol tours the Far East. Ted Carey meets Andy Warhol. Golden Pictures by Andy Warhol at the Bodley Gallery. Andy Warhol's mother wins an award. The Judson Gallery opens. The Caffe Cino opens. Billy Name meets Andy Warhol. The Connection opens at The Living Theater. Lou Reed has shock treatment. Andy Warhol illustrates Harper's Bazaar. Andy Warhol attends the opening of the Guggenheim Museum and asks to go to a leather bar. Wild Raspberries at the Bodley Gallery.

Births: Andy Warhol, Louis Waldon, Valerie Solanas, Ondine, Viva, Nico, Brigid Berlin, Baby Jane Holzer, Billy Name, John Cale, Lou Reed, Sterling Morrison, Gerard Malanga, Edie Sedgwick, Mary Woronov, Candy Darling, Maureen Mo Tucker, Holly Woodlawn, Jackie Curtis, Bob Colacello and Joe Dallesandro.

AUGUST 6, 1928: ANDY WARHOL IS BORN.

Julia Warhola with Andy Warhol

Julia Warhola with John Warhola (left)
and Andrew Warhola (right) (1931)

Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His birth name was Andrew Warhola. His parents, Ondrej (aka Andrej) Warhola and Julia (née Zavacky) were immigrants from Miková in northeastern Slovakia. (BC11) He had two older brothers - Paul, born in 1922 and John, born in 1925. (SC3) During his lifetime, Warhol gave various dates for his birth but the correct one is August 6, 1928, based on a birth certificate that was filed late in order to qualify him for college and his certificate of baptism.

According to an essay by Warhol's college classmate, Bennard B. Perlman, published in the inaugural publication of The Andy Warhol Museum in 1994, Warhol was born at 73 Orr Street. (AWMU147) This was also the address published in Andy Warhol 365 Takes by the staff of The Warhol museum in 2004 which noted that Warhol "was born in a shack like row house at 73 Orr Street in Pittsburgh." (AWM4) A recent biography of the artist, however, Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol published in 2009, claims that "When Andy was born, the family was living in a two-room slum apartment on Beelen Street, overlooking the Ohio River." (SC4)

Bennard B. Perlman (1994):

"The Warhola family originally lived at 73 Orr Street, in a wooden house in which they occupied just two rooms (it was there that Andy was born), then at 55 Beelen Street and 6 Moutrie Street. All were within a few blocks of each other in Pittsburgh's Hill District, overlooking the industrial complex, blast furnaces, and belching smoke of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Company. It was there that Andrej Warhola was employed.

In 1934 the family moved to 3252 Dawson Street in Oakland, within walking distance of Carnegie Institute, with its Museum of Art, Museum of Natural History, Music Hall, and Library, and the rolling hills and oasis of greenery known as Schenley Park." (AWMU147)

Wayne Koestenbaum claimed that Warhol was dyslexic in his 2003 biography of the artist. However, there is no medical evidence to support this. When Warhol graduated from high school in 1945 (at the age of sixteen), he ranked 51 in a class of 278 (DB18), which would be quite a high ranking for somebody with dyslexia in the 1940s, even given the academic help Warhol sometimes received from other students. Despite this, the dyslexia claim was also repeated in Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol in 2009. The "telltale" spelling errors made by the artist, as first presented by Koestenbaum and then repeated by the authors of Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol, probably have more to do with the fact that Warhol was raised by parents who spoke a foreign language at home rather than with anything having to do with dyslexia.

1928 OR 1929: ANDY WARHOL'S FATHER HAS HIS GALLBLADDER REMOVED.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"In 1928 or 1929, Ondrej Warhola had his gallbladder removed. Paul [Warhola] felt that the operation wasn't entirely successful. 'Dad just never recouped his strength, his ailments lingered.' At some point in the late thirties, while he was working a construction job in West Virginia, Ondrej drank tainted water and contracted jaundice. 'The other guys got sick, but they recovered,' said Paul. 'Dad's resistance was so low that he never got better. He died of TB peritonitis' in May 1942." (SC8)

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DECEMBER 16, 1934: LOUIS WALDON IS BORN IN MODESTO, CALIFORNIA. (IMDB)

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1936

APRIL 9, 1936: VALERIE JEAN SOLANAS IS BORN.

Valerie was born in Ventnor, New Jersey. She later became famous as the person who shot Andy Warhol. During her childhood, Solanas was sexually molested by her father and whipped by her grandfather when she refused to stay in a Catholic High School. (UV184)

AUTUMN 1936: ANDY WARHOL GETS ILL.

At the age of eight ANDY WARHOL came down with a rare disease called chorea, or St. Vitus' dance, "an illness of the nervous system that under certain circumstances can prove fatal." According to Paul Alexander in Death and Disaster: The Rise of the Warhol Empire and the Race for Andy's Millions, Warhol had originally come down with rheumatic fever. At the time, before antibiotics, approximately 10 percent of cases of rheumatic fever worsened and became chorea (also called St. Vitus' Dance). Warhol stayed in bed for about ten weeks. When he finally returned to school he had a relapse of the illness on the first day and returned to bed. (DD22-3)

Although Warhol's skin problems have sometimes been attributed to the illness, his brothers Paul and John recalled that the skin problems that affected Warhol's face started later, at the onset of adolescence. (SC6)

Denton Cox, Warhol's doctor at the time of the artist's death, would also later comment on skin problems that Warhol had which affected his scrotum:

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"Of the physical problems that played such a large role in shaping Warhol's personality, one - whose impact may have been greater than any other - has never been publicly discussed. Evidently present since birth, the condition affected the appearance of Warhol's genitalia. 'He had very prominent hemangiomas, or collections of blood vessels, chiefly on the scrotum,' according to Denton Cox, Warhol's doctor for almost three decades. 'They looked like little collections of rubies, lots of them.' To Warhol, it was nothing less than a disfigurement, and he was ashamed, extremely self-conscious. 'It put him into a disadvantageous emotional place in every relationship.' As a result, he was 'only comfortable when things were casual, and where he could be self-protective; where he could mostly watch, or participate in a way that didn't expose him.'" (SC8)

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JUNE 16, 1937: ONDINE IS BORN BOB OLIVO. (FM)

c. 1937: ANDY WARHOL GETS A CAMERA.

He develops the film in his own makeshift darkroom in the basement of his house. (AWM5)

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1938

AUGUST 23, 1938: VIVA IS BORN.

Viva was born in Thousand Islands, New York and raised in Syracuse. Her birth name was Janet Susan Mary Hoffman. She was the eldest of nine children born to conservative parents. Her father was a prominent criminal lawyer. After attending parochial grade schools, she went to Marymount, a Catholic College in Tarrytown, New York. She studied in Paris at the Sorbonne in her junior year, living in a convent on the Right Bank while studying art. (FM/DB260)

OCTOBER 16, 1938: NICO IS BORN.

Nico was born in Cologne and raised by her mother and grandfather in Spreewald - a small town on the outskirts of Berlin. Her birth name was Christa Paffgen.

Nico was educated first in France, then in Italy and spoke seven languages. She also went to a private school in Germany, worked as a child model, and later studied acting and singing at the Lee Strasberg Method Studios. During the air raids in the second world war, she took shelter in the family's bath tub and always remembered the sound of the bombs. (UT32-33)

According to Victor Bockris and Gerard Malanga in Up-tight,The Velvet Underground Story, "At 15 while vacationing at a friend's villa in Rome, Nico was introduced to some young actors from Cinecitta (Italy's Hollywood), who invited her to the set of a movie they were making with an eccentric director named Frederico Fellini." She ended up appearing in the movie they were making - La Dolce Vita. (UT32-33)

Bockris/Malanga's version of events conflights slightly with other accounts. According to David Bourdon in Warhol, Nico was born in Cologne, grew up in Berlin, worked as a model in Paris and Rome and was seventeen years old when she appeared in La Dolce Vita. (DB221) A site user has, however, pointed out that Nico was actually 20 years of age when she appeared in Fellini's film. According to Wikipedia, she was born 16 October 1938 and La Dolce Vita was filmed from 16 March to 15 August 1959. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federico_Fellini/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nico)

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1939

SEPTEMBER 6, 1939: BRIGID BERLIN IS BORN.

Brigid's father, Richard E. Berlin, was chairman of the Hearst Corporation. Her mother, Honey Berlin married him when she was 21 years. Nine months after their marriage, Brigid was born.

Brigid had two sisters - Richie and Christina and a brother, Richard. Brigid's mother put her on speed when she was a child to make her lose weight. (PS)

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1940

OCTOBER 23, 1940: BABY JANE HOLZER IS BORN. (imdb)

Jane was born in Palm Beach, Florida. Her birth name was Jane Brookenfeld. Her father, Carl Brookenfeld, made his fortune in real estate. She later married Leonard Holzer who had also made a fortune through real estate.

FEBRUARY 22, 1940: BILLY NAME IS BORN.

Billy Name was born Billy Linich at Vassar Hospital in Poughkeepsie, New York. According to Billy, he grew up as an "average repressed young American" until 1958 when he transplanted himself to the Village in New York and "magically" became an occult artist. (B)

DECEMBER 5, 1940: JOHN CALE IS BORN.

Cale was born in Crynant, South Wales. He attended school in Crynant until he was seventeen years old and then studied classical music at Goldsmith College in London from 1960-63. In 1963 Cale was awarded a scholarship to study at Tanglewood in the States and then moved to New York to start a band called The Dream Syndicate with LaMonte Young. (UT12-13)

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1942

MARCH 2, 1942: LOU REED IS BORN.

Lou Reed was born Lewis Alan Reed at Beth El Hospital in Brooklyn, New York to an accountant and an ex-beauty queen housewife. Reed's family moved to 35 Oakfield Avenue, Freeport, Long Island in 1953, where he spent his childhood. (LR16-7) He realized he had homosexual urges at the age of thirteen. At the age of fifteen he formed a band called The Shades and put out a single on the Time label called So Blue. (LR22-3/UT15)

1942: ANDY WARHOL GRADUATES FROM HOLMES SCHOOL.

After graduating from Holmes, he went to Schenley High School, studying art under Joseph Fitzpatrick who also taught classes at the Carnegie Institute. (AWM6)

AUGUST 29, 1942: STERLING MORRISON IS BORN.

Sterling was born in East Meadow, Long Island. His birth name was Holmes Sterling Morrison, Jr. He was raised by middle-class parents and had two younger brothers, Robert and William and three younger sisters, Dorothy, Kathleen and Marjorie. He studied the trumpet from age 7 to 12 and then, inspired by Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry, switched to guitar when his trumpet teacher was drafted. He later met Lou Reed while attending Syracuse University. His roommate at Syracuse was Maureen Tucker's brother, Jim. Their room was beneath Lou Reed's room. (UT19)

MAY 1942: ANDY WARHOL'S FATHER DIES. (SC8)

Warhol's father, ANDREJ (aka Ondrej) WARHOLA, died from a jaundiced liver. According to Paul Alexander in Death and Disaster, The Rise of the Warhol Empire and the Race for Andy's Millions, "some friends questioned why the liver was diseased in the first place. Many suggested that it was a direct result of his gallbladder being removed some years before. Others would imply that perhaps Ondrej [Warhol's father] drank excessively, the prolonged effect of which damaged his liver. Either way, it was obvious that Ondrej's gallbladder was susceptible to disease, a hereditary trait he passed on to Andy." (DD23)

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warholandy warhol book:

"In 1928 or 1929, Ondrej Warhola had his gallbladder removed. Paul [Warhola] felt that the operation wasn't entirely successful. 'Dad just never recouped his strength, his ailments lingered.' At some point in the late thirties, while he was working a construction job in West Virginia, Ondrej drank tainted water and contracted jaundice. 'The other guys got sick, but they recovered,' said Paul. 'Dad's resistance was so low that he never got better. He died of TB peritonitis' in May 1942." (SC8)

Warhol was fourteen years old at the time and did not attend his father's funeral. According to his brother, PAUL WARHOLA, their mother was afraid that the funeral might lead to a recurrence of Andy's "nervous condition". Young Warhol hid under a bed upstairs during the wake and refused to come down to see his father laid out in in the open casket in the living room. (BC18)

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1943

MARCH 20, 1943: GERARD MALANGA IS BORN.

APRIL 20, 1943: EDIE SEDGWICK IS BORN.

Edie was born at the Cottage Hospital in Santa Barbara, California. In the sixties, she told ULTRA VIOLET that as a child both her father and brother tried to sleep with her, but she rejected their advances. When she discovered her father making love to another woman, she tried to tell her mother. Her father told her she was insane and called the doctor. Edie told Ultra, “They gave me so many tranquillizers I lost all my feelings.”

Edie suffered from anorexia in school, which continued into her adult life. Later when she moved to New York, she demonstrated vomiting to Ultra Violet by tickling her uvula with a scarlet ibis feather while listening to a Hoagy Carmichael record. She also liked Ornette Coleman. (UV206-7)

JUNE 23, 1943: ERIC EMERSON IS BORN.

DECEMBER 8, 1943: MARY WORONOV IS BORN. (MW11/IMDb)

Mary Woronov was born in Brooklyn, New York and studied art at Cornell University. Her step-father was a cancer surgeon. About her father, Mary would later say "women loved him... most of the emergencies at the hospital were blondes or brunettes." (MW14)

Mary wasn't allowed to smoke pot at home, but she was permitted to take as many of her mother’s speed pills as she wanted. (MW12)

Mary Woronov:

"When Mom didn't clean the house fast enough, Daddy put her on speed after diagnosing an underactive thyroid... at three in the morning I'd find her curled under the yellow glow of a lamp in a darkened living room... reading The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich...

'Mom, why don't you go to bed? It's late.'

'Uh huh, I will... in a minute.'

'Mom, you read that book last year year, don't you remember?' " (MW13)

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1944

NOVEMBER 24, 1944: CANDY DARLING IS BORN. (FM/CD10)

Candy was born in New York. Her birth name was James Lawrence Slattery. Various birth dates appear in Warhol literature for Candy, but November 24 is the generally accepted date - although Bob Colacello thought s/he was born in 1946. (BC79)

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1945

1945: ANDY WARHOL GRADUATES FROM HIGH SCHOOL.

After graduating from Schenley High School, he studied painting and design at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. (DD24) Warhol originally intended to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in order to become an art teacher, but he changed his mind and applied to the Carnegie Institute to study pictorial design with the intention of becoming a commercial illustrator. (AWM6)

Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol at the Carnegie
Institute of Technology (c. 1947)
(photo: Philip Pearlstein)

1945: MAUREEN ('Mo') TUCKER IS BORN.

Mo was born in New Jersey. She later became the drummer for The Velvet Underground despite the fact that "John [Cale] was adamant about not wanting any girls in the band." (Mo/UT29)

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1946

OCTOBER 26, 1946: HOLLY WOODLAWN IS BORN. (HW29/IMDb/BC81)

Holly Woodlawn was born Harold Santiago Rodriguez Franceschi Danhackl in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. Holly's mother was Puerto Rican, her father an American soldier of German descent who met Holly’s mother on leave, got her pregnant, married her, then quickly departed.

Holly was raised in a household that included “8 aunts, 1 uncle, 5 cousins, 2 grandparents, 6 chickens and 3 pigs.” (HW28-9) She later changed her first name to Holly after Holly Golightly in Truman Capote’s story Breakfast at Tiffany's. (HW3)

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1947

FEBRUARY 19, 1947: JACKIE CURTIS IS BORN. (J)

Jackie Curtis was born John Holder, Jr. in New York.

1947: BOB COLACELLO IS BORN.

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1948

1948: HOLLY WOODLAWN’S MOTHER MOVES TO NEW YORK.

Holly was left in Puerto Rico to be raised by her grandmother. (HW30)

DECEMBER 31, 1948: JOE DALLESANDRO IS BORN.

Joe Dallesandro was born Joseph Angelo D’Allessandro III in Pensacola Florida, to an 18 year old Italian American sailor, stationed at the local Naval base, and his wife, 16 year old Thelma Testman.

Joe Sr. had married Thelma when she was 14 years old. One year later in New York City they gave birth to Joe’s brother, Robert (Bob) who would later play a small part in Trash and work for Warhol as a chauffeur. Later, Thelma (or Sandy as she was called from an abbreviation of the last two syllables of her married last name), was arrested in Florida for interstate auto theft and sentenced to five years in a Federal penitentiary.

Joe and his brother ended up at Angel Guardian Home in Harlem, awaiting foster care. Both were eventually fostered to the same couple in Brooklyn, with Joe Sr. visiting his sons approximately once a month. When Joe was 14 years old, he went to live with his father in Queens at his grandparent’s house. (JOE13)

Joe Dallesandro

Joe Dallesandro

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1949

SUMMER 1949: ANDY WARHOL MOVES TO MANHATTAN. (SC14)

Warhol graduated from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design and moved to New York a week after graduating in June 1949. PHILIP PEARLSTEIN, a friend from college accompanied Warhol to Manhattan. Pearlstein would later go on to become an important realist painter. They had previously visited Manhattan with another student from Carnegie Tech. (SC14)

While at college Warhol had worked in the display department at the Joseph Horne department store. He had also frequented a local gallery called Outlines where he had been exposed to the work of Joseph Cornell, Marcel Duchamp, John Cage and Buckminster Fuller. He had also taught art classes at the Irene Kaufmann Settlement while still in college. (AWM7)

In Manhattan Warhol and Pearlstein subleased an eighth-floor walkup tenement apartment on St. Mark's Place (and Avenue A) for the summer. According to Pearlstein, "The bathtub was in the kitchen and it was usually full of roaches, incredible roaches."

When they moved a few months later to the large front room of dancer FRANCESCA BOAS's loft on West 21st Street, Andy sent out address change cards in small envelopes filled with glitter announcing, "I've moved from one roach-ridden apartment to another." (BC21)

One of Andy Warhol's first free-lance jobs was at Glamour magazine. He went on to become an extremely successful commercial artist, working for most of the major fashion magazines throughout the fifties, doing album covers for Columbia records, designing Christmas cards, book jackets and retail ad campaigns, including the famous shoe ads for I. Miller in the mid-fifties.

"At the height of his career as a commercial artist, Warhol was earning one hundred thousand dollars a year, a staggering sum for the fifties... on the I. Miller account alone he made fifty thousand dollars one year...Eventually he had to hire assistants to help him keep up with his assignments. He even enlisted the services of his mother, who followed him from Pittsburgh to New York soon after he started making enough money to support them both." (DD25)

During his commercial art days, Warhol was represented by an agent, Fritzie Miller, and his assistants included Vito Giallo and Nathan Gluck. (AWM59) (See Andy Warhol Pre-Pop: 1949 - 1962.)

Andy Warhol, Arthur Elias, Philip Pearlstein, Leonard Kessler

Arthur Elias (front left), Philip Pearlstein (back left),
Andy Warhol and Leonard Kessler (right) - all
classmates at Carnegie Tech (c. 1948/9)

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1951

1951: FIRST PERFORMANCES OF THE LIVING THEATRE IN NEW YORK.

Founded by Julian Beck and Judith Malina, the theatre - based at various locations during the 1950s and 60s - can be seen as a precursor to venues like the Caffe Cino, the Judson Church and La Mama. The top floor of The Living Theatre's 14th Street building, which they performed in from 1959 - 1963, was leased as a studio space to Merce Cunningham and John Cage. (SB21-31)

The group became known for their confrontational theatre where the boundaries between audience and performers became blurred as they often shouted, screamed and groaned through whatever psycho-drama they were performing at the time. Actors performed as themselves performing as actors - not unlike some of Warhol's films in which actors had roles and sometimes scripted lines but , in reality, mostly played themselves. Confrontation in the films was often encouraged or at least applauded after it happened i.e. the scene where Ondine slaps Ronna Page in The Chelsea Girls or where Mary and Brigid abuse Ingrid; the rape scene in Lonesome Cowboys; Ronald Tavel as the interrogator in Screen Test No. 2; Paul Swan being wound up by his offscreen "director" in Paul Swan; Chuck Wein giving Edie a hard time in Beauty No. 2 etc.

Some of the people that Warhol would later use in his films were associated with The Living Theatre. JAMES WARING, who would later appear in Warhol's film, Haircut #1, taught a dance course there and Warhol star TAYLOR MEAD performed at their weekly Living Poetry series. TALLY BROWN (Batman Dracula, Camp, Four Stars) also participated in Living Theatre events. It was after Warhol saw Jonas Mekas' film of the The Living Theatre's production of The Brig that Warhol began using an auricon movie camera which enabled him to shoot longer scenes with a single-system soundtrack.
(http://www.rufuscollins.org/timeline.html/PS232)

See: Andy Warhol, The Connection and The Brig.

It was also at the The Living Theatre that the woman identified as Warhol's first superstar in Popism, Naomi Levine, was first introduced to Warhol.

Naomi Levine:

"I had met Gerry Malanga and Wynn Chamberlain at a party, and we had spent a couple of days together. Gerry wanted me to meet Andy, so he and Wynn and John Giorno and Andy had me meet them all at The Living Theatre. They were all in tuxedos, and we went to an opening at the Museum of Modern Art." (JW105)

Rufus Collins, one of the few black people to appear in Warhol's films, was also a member of The Living Theatre during the 1960s. The Warhol films that Collins appeared in included two Screen Tests, Kiss, Batman Dracula, Soap Opera and Couch.

Callie Angell:

"The actor Rufus Collins, whose friendship with Warhol began in the 1950s, trained at the Actors Studio in New York and was a member of the Living Theatre in the 1960s... Collins was also one of the earliest stars of Warhol's cinema, beginning in August 1963 with Naomi and Rufus Kiss, the film from which Warhol's Plexiglas sculpture The Large Kiss was derived... Later in his career, Collins played a Transylvanian in the cult feature The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), and had a few small roles in more mainstream pictures such as Shock Treatment (1981) and The Hunger (1983). He settled in Europe, dying from AIDS in Holland in 1996." (AD54)

1951: HOLLY WOODLAWN MOVES FROM PUERTO RICO TO THE BRONX.

Holly joined her mother who had moved there earlier and married a Polish Jewish man named Joseph Ajzenberg. Holly's mother and Joseph had met each other during seasonal work at an upstate resort as waitress and waiter. (HW31)

c. EARLY 1950s: ANDY WARHOL AVOIDS THE DRAFT.

There are two selective service cards for Andy Warhol in the collection of the Warhol Museum. The first one, from Warhol's Pittsburgh youth, rated him 1-a which meant he could be drafted without any problem. On the second one, dating from his early days in New York City, his rating had changed to 4-f which meant he was no long eligible to serve. The reason for the change is unknown. (M/B)

SEPTEMBER 1951: ANDY WARHOL DOES HIS FIRST ILLUSTRATION FOR HARPER'S BAZAAR.

Charlie Scheips notes in the foreword to the exhibition catalogue, Andy Warhol: The Bazaar Years 1951 - 1964, that "The first illustration credited to Andy Warhol in Harper's Bazaar appeared in the September 1951 issue of the magazine. Warhol illustrated both handbags and shoes for that 'Junior Bazaar' feature." (HB2)

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1952

1952: ANDY WARHOL WINS HIS FIRST AWARD.

He won the award from the Art Directors Club for graphics done for a CBS radio program called The Nation's Nightmare about narcotics and crime. (AWM60)

See also: THE NATION'S NIGHTMARE.

JUNE 16 - JULY 3, 1952: ANDY WARHOL HAS HIS FIRST EXHIBITION IN NEW YORK.

The exhibition was at the Hugo Gallery on Fifty-fifth Street. It was called Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote. Having been attracted by the jacket photograph of Truman Capote on his book Other Voices, Other Rooms, Andy tried to contact TRUMAN CAPOTE, sending him various letters and then telephoning him at his apartment.

Capote's mother, an alcoholic who lived with Truman, was at first friendly toward Andy though she eventually told him to leave her son alone, calling Warhol a faggot. Although invited to the opening, Truman Capote did not attend. (DD25-26/BC402) (Some accounts indicate that Truman did attend.)

See also: JUNE 1952: THE HUGO GALLERY in the Pre-Pop section.

1952: ANDY WARHOL'S EX-ROOMMATE PHILIP PEARLSTEIN DOES A SUPERMAN PAINTING.

The painting is currently in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York and can be seen at:
http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%3A4529&page_number=1&template_id=1&sort_order=1.

AUTUMN 1952: THE TANAGER GALLERY OPENS.

The Tanager Gallery was a co-operative artists' gallery at 90 East 10th Street - next door to Willem de Kooning's home.
(http://www.theartstory.org/gallery-10thstreet.htm)

1952 or 1953: ANDY WARHOL IS REJECTED BY THE TANAGER GALLERY.

According to Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol, Warhol submitted "boy drawings" to the Tanager twice unsuccessfully, although many sources indicate only one attempt.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"As Joseph Groell, a Tanager member, recalled, Andy asked him in 1952 or 1953 to submit some Warhol drawings for a guest show. The drawings 'weren't really erotic,' Groell recalled, 'they were head drawings. Because I was a friend' (he and Andy were rooming together), 'I promised him I'd take the drawings down. I was very embarrassed, but I did it. Of course, they wouldn't show them. I told Andy very nicely that people weren't interested. If he was hurt, he didn't show it.'" (SC33)

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1954

1954: ANDY WARHOL EXHIBITS AT THE LOFT GALLERY.

See New York: Loft Gallery (3 Exhibitions).

1954: VALERIE SOLANAS GRADUATES FROM HIGH SCHOOL.

She gets an “A” in all subjects except physics, for which she receives a “B”. She enters the University of Maryland at College Park and does well, later spending less than a year at the Graduate School of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. (UV184)

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1955

JANUARY 1955: FIRST ISSUE OF FILM CULTURE MAGAZINE IS PUBLISHED.

The founder of the magazine, Jonas Mekas, distributed and screened many of Warhol's early films and promoted them in the pages of The Village Voice newspaper in New York for which he wrote a regular column titled "Movie Journal" from 1958. In December 1964, Andy Warhol received Film Culture's Independent Filmmakers' Award.

Mekas was a Lithuanian poet who had arrived in the U.S. (with his brother Adolfas) on 29 October 1949 after surviving four years in displaced persons camps in Europe. His account of his time in the camps was later published as I Had Nowhere to Go (Newfane, Vermont: Black Thistle Press, 1991) (DJ4)

David E. James (To Free the Cinema: Jonas Mekas & The New York Underground):

"While it was oriented toward Europe, from the beginning Film Culture gave sympathetic critical attention to American film, and eventually seminal work on Hollywood appeared there, most notably Andrew Sarris's 'Notes on the Auteur Theory in 1962' and 'The American Cinema' (appearing in 1963 in nos. 27 and 28 respectively). This tolerance did not extend to the avant-garde; an early issue contained Mekas's immediately notorious attack, 'The Experimental Film in America,' in which he lambasted the 'adolescent character,' a putative 'conspiracy of homosexuality,' the 'lack of creative inspiration,' and the 'technical crudity and thematic narrowness' variously to be found in the work of young filmmakers including Stan Brakhage, Gregory Markopoulos, Curtis Harrington,and Kenneth Anger. Mekas himself later termed this a 'Saint-Augustine-before-the conversion piece,' and the religious metaphor is entirely appropriated, for within a few years he was the fiercest advocate of what he had come to see as a new and distinctively American film culture, and an entirely new sense of its political significance." (DJ7-8)

APRIL 1955: ANDY WARHOL IS HIRED BY I. MILLER & SONS.

He received an annual retainer of $12,000. (SC22)

1955: HOLLY WOODLAWN MOVES TO SOUTH BEACH.

Holly, her mother and her stepfather moved from the Bronx to in South Beach in Miami, Florida. (HW36) Holly lived there until running away to New York in 1962.

c. LATE 1955: ANDY WARHOL MEETS CHARLES LISANBY.

Warhol and Lisanby would go on a round-the-world tour together in 1956.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy WarholAndy Warhol book:

"Andy and Lisanby met at a party in late 1955... Andy was smitten; Lisanby was not... What Andy really wanted was for Lisanby to introduce him to Cecil Beaton... 'Finally I took Andy to a party Cecil gave. After I introduced him, he sat in the corner. He made no impression on Cecil, didn't socialize, didn't talk to anyone. He really did not know how to mix. He always looked, and I'm sure felt, so awkward at parties. He didn't know how to join and have fun and meet people. He had no social graces.'" (SC29)

Lisanby had been introduced to Cecil Beaton by Oliver Messel when Beaton was doing the sets and costumes for Little Glass Clock which ran at the John Golden Theatre from 26 -31 March 1956. Lisanby did the lighting design for the production and then a couple of other shows with Beaton including a Samuel Barber opera, Vanessa, at the Met. (AAT7.55)

Lisanby also worked for CBS as a set designer of television programs, including the popular quiz shows, DOTTO (1958) and The $64,000 Question, as well as the Garry Moore Show before being lured to NBC where he worked on the Kraft Music Hall and the Red Skelton Show, among others. He moved to Southern California in the late 60s and would go on to win three Emmy Awards for the Benjamin Franklin mini-series (1974), a Barry Manilow special and his personal favourite, Baryshnikov on Broadway (1980). He was also the set designer for quite a number of television commercials including Merrill Lynch, Panasonic and Irish Spring.

See also CHARLES LISANBY.

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1956

c. 1956: ANDY WARHOL IS REJECTED AGAIN BY THE TANAGER GALLERY.

He had apparently also been rejected by the gallery in 1952 - see 1952 above.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"Philip Pearlstein joined the Tanager in 1954; at some point thereafter, probably in 1956, Warhol made his second try [at exhibiting at the gallery]. 'The Tanager was a gallery that got a lot of attention,' Pearlstein said, 'so Andy brought me a portfolio of these 'boy drawings' with their tongues in each other's mouths. The macho painters at the Tanager took one look at these and dismissed them. Andy was very hurt. I remember the talk I had with him after that. I said that sometimes the subject matter gets in the way.' According to Pearlstein, it was the end of their ten-year friendship..." (SC33)

FEBRUARY 14 - MARCH 3, 1956: "DRAWINGS FOR A BOY BOOK BY ANDY WARHOL" EXHIBITION AT THE BODLEY GALLERY.

See 1956: THE BOY BOOK in the Pre-Pop section.

1956: ANDY WARHOL IS INTERVIEWED FOR SHORT PROFILE IN MADEMOISELLE MAGAZINE.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"Asked in 1956 to join Alfred Knopf, Pearl Buck, Tennessee Williams, Saul Steinberg, and others as one of that year's sponsors of Mademoiselle's undergraduate 'guest editors,' Andy was interviewed for a short profile. 'Every time I draw a shoe for a job,' he claimed, 'I do an illustration for myself.'" (SC16)

During the same year Mademoiselle also published Truman Capote's story, A Christmas Memory, in their December 1956 issue. They had previously published Capote's story Miriam during 1946.
(http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Truman_Capote/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Christmas_Memory/)

Warhol has also been credited as the artist for Mademoiselle's calendar of 1956.
(http://designarchives.aiga.org/entry.cfm/eid_17190)

APRIL 25 - AUGUST 5, 1956: ANDY WARHOL IS INCLUDED IN GROUP SHOW AT THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART.

See 1956: RECENT DRAWINGS: U.S.A. in the Pre-Pop section.

JUNE 16 - AUGUST 12, 1956: ANDY WARHOL TOURS THE WORLD.

Warhol's traveling companion was Charles Lisanby on his round-the-world tour.

Also in 1956: One of Warhol's drawings was included in the Recent Drawings U.S.A. exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art. He also received the 35th Annual Art Directors Club Award for Distinctive Merit for his I. Miller shoe advertisements.

DECEMBER 3 - 22, 1956: "ANDY WARHOL: THE GOLDEN SLIPPER SHOW OR SHOES SHOE IN AMERICA" AT THE BODLEY GALLERY.

See SHOES SHOE IN AMERICA (1956) in the Pre-Pop section.

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1957

c. 1957: TED CAREY MEETS ANDY WARHOL.

Carey had arrived in New York from Philadelphia in 1954.

Ted Carey:

"I think, I met Andy in the late '50s. It was around 1957. I think it was around 1957... as I remember, I met Andy at an exhibition of drawings he had done. And the exhibition was at Serendipity... And this particular exhibition was an exhibition of drawings of cats. And I think that the title of the show was 'Cats with Hats'... And that was the first time I had met him, and then I saw him shortly after that in the zoo... in the cafeteria of the zoo. And he had remembered meeting me. And he said he would like me to pose for him. So, at that meeting we made a date, and he came by and did one or two drawings of me... At that time, I think I was working for N.B.C. And shortly after that I lost my job at N.B.C. I was unemployed." (PS247)

After Carey met his lover, John Mann, at a party, Warhol also sketched Mann. Mann had moved to New York to work in advertising after graduating from Cambridge. After Mann met Carey at the party, they went home together and the next morning Carey suggested they visit Warhol. Warhol ended up sketching Mann's cock after Carey told him how big it was.

John Mann:

"I remember thinking, 'this is sort of weird. But Ted said, 'Oh, it would be fun!' And Andy said, 'Please let me do it!' I thought, 'Oh well,' and before I knew it - we were all very young and silly - I was sitting with my pants down, with a daffodil wound around my dick. That was my first meeting with Andy." (SC30)

Carey also recalled that "one weekend we [he and Andy] were in Philadelphia at a friend's, and Cecil Beaton was there, and Andy did Cecil Beaton with a rose between his toes... The other things that he [Warhol] started to do [was] a whole group of cock drawings. Beautiful cock-penis drawings." (PS260) Cecil Beaton apparently also sketched Mann and Carey in Carey's apartment.

From Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol:

"'It was such a laid-back, languid, campy environment we were all existing in,' said Mann. Nobody would have been surprised to find Noel Coward sipping a cocktail in the Careys' ratty East 88th Street kitchen (Ted shared the apartment with his younger brother Gary, a Columbia graduate student.) Indeed, something like this actually occurred. Getting back from school one night, Gary opened the door onto a remarkable tableau: Cecil Beaton absorbedly sketching Ted and John Mann in flagrante delicto (they were only miming, Mann insisted), while Andy, who was there too, kept trying to peer over the seated Beaton's shoulder. When the session was over, Andy asked for the drawings. Refusing, Beaton thanked his models and left." (SC31)

In 1960, the artist Fairfield Porter painted a picture of Carey and Warhol:

Andy Warhol and Ted Carey

Ted Carey and Andy Warhol by Fairfield Porter

Andy Warhol [via Pat Hackett in POPism: The Warhol Sixties]:

"I used to go around to all the galleries in the late fifties, usually with a good friend of mine named Ted Carey. Ted and I both had wanted to have our portraits done by Fairfield Porter, and we'd thought that it would be cheaper if he painted us in tandem and then we could cut it apart and each take half. But when he'd posed us, he sat us so close together on the couch that we couldn't slice a straight line between us and I'd had to buy Ted out. Anyway, Ted and I followed the art scene together, keeping up with what was going on." (POP6)

DECEMBER 2 - 24, 1957: A SHOW OF GOLDEN PICTURES BY ANDY WARHOL AT THE BODLEY GALLERY.

An illustration of a golden Christmas tree by Warhol used to publicize the show was also featured in the December issue of Harper's Bazaar. (HB4)

See also: A GOLD BOOK (1957) in the Pre-Pop section.

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1958

1958: ANDY WARHOL'S MOTHER WINS A GRAPHIC DESIGN AWARD.

Warhol's mother often did the lettering for his designs. Her lettering on the cover of a Louis Hardin album, The Story of Moondog, won an award from the American Institute of Graphic Arts as "Andy Warhol's mother". The writing had been rearranged graphically by Warhol for the cover. (AWM58)

1958: THE JUDSON GALLERY OPENS.

From Playing Underground: A Critical History of the 1960s Off-Off-Broadway Movement by Stephen J. Bottoms:

"Founded in 1892 by Baptist minister Edward Judson, its [the Judson Memorial Church's] initial mission was to be a church that would 'cross the tracks,' by serving both the wealthier families to the north of the Square and the Italian immigrant ghetto to the south... This was a heritage taken very seriously by Dr. Howard Moody, who in 1956 began a pastorate that was to last almost four decades... The Judson Gallery was established in 1958, in the church's basement Ping-Pong room, and in 1959-60, its program was curated by Allan Kaprow - fresh from his success with 18 Happenings in 6 Parts at the Reuben Gallery. Consequently, Judson became an early center for happenings such as Kaprow's The Shrine and Claes Oldenburg's Ray Gun Specs events - which incorporated work by Jim Dine, Al Hansen [father of Warhol star BIBBE HANSEN], Dick Higgins, and Robert Whitman. Over the next few years, the church was also to initiate dance and poetry programs." (SB66)

In 1961, The Judson Poets Theatre was established at the church. The Judson Dance Theater would also be located there the following year - their first concert was on 6 July 1962. (JDxi)

(See the Visual Arts, Dance, Theater and Music sections of the "Arts" section of of http://www.judson.org.)

DECEMBER 1958: THE CAFFE CINO OPENS IN NEW YORK.

According to Cino playwright, Robert Patrick, Warhol stars who did work at the Cino included Ondine, Taylor Mead, Ronald Tavel, Louis Waldon and Mary Woronov. Andy Warhol filmed the Cino productions of Robert Heide's play The Bed and Soren Agenoux's play Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol.

(See Caffe Cino.)


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1959

1959: BILLY NAME MEETS ANDY WARHOL.

Billy met Andy while working as a waiter at Serendipity 3, an espresso boutique in the chic upper east side of Manhattan. After a brief sexual relationship, Billy and Andy became friends. Billy would later create the silver look of the Factory. (B)

SPRING 1959: LOU REED HAS SHOCK TREATMENT.

Lou's parents sent him (at the age of seventeen) to a psychiatrist to be cured of "homosexual feelings and alarming mood swings." Reed was referred to Creedmore State Psychiatric Hospital for electroshock treatment three times a week for eight weeks. After finishing the course of treatment he was put on strong tranquillizers. (LR15-6)

MAY 1959: ANDY WARHOL ILLUSTRATES SPA SHOES IN HARPER'S BAZAAR.

Charlie Scheips [Foreword to Andy Warhol: The Bazaar Years 1951-1964]

"In addition to his shoe, accessories and beauty illustrations, Warhol also created from the very beginning literally hundreds of what I would call 'incidental' drawings for Harper's Bazaar. Warhol's graphic menagerie of fanciful cupids, whimsical butterflies, cherubic angels, sultry mermaids and slinky cats also appeared in dozens of the magazine's pages as the decade grew on. Always quick to recycle past work, Warhol's illustration for 'spa shoes' in the May 1959 issue of Bazaar is topped by one of his smiling cats, reminiscent of his 1954 book 25 Cats name Sam and one Blue Pussy."

See also: 25 CATS NAME SAM AND ONE BLUE PUSSY (c.1955) in the Pre-Pop section.

JUNE 2, 1959: THE CONNECTION OPENS AT THE LIVING THEATRE.

Jack Gelber's play about heroin addicts, The Connection was the inaugural production of the Living Theatre's venue on14th Street and 6th Avenue. (SB28) The boundaries between "theatre" and real life became blurred as actors as the "playwright" and "producer" addressed the audience directly, telling them that they had assembled a cast of real heroin addicts who would be improvising around a loose scenario.

See Andy Warhol, The Connection and The Brig.

AUTUMN 1959: LOU REED GOES TO COLLEGE.

Lou Reed attended the Bronx campus of New York University while also going to the Payne Whitney psychiatric clinic for an intensive course of post-shock treatments. (LR28)

In the Spring of 1960, after completing his Payne Whitney sessions (although still on tranquillizers), he transferred to Syracuse University where he first formed a folk band, and then in his sophomore year, a rock and roll band called LA and the Eldorados. (LR50)

At Syracuse, he also met guitarist Sterling Morrison. Although Sterling was not a student he hung out on campus, visiting his student friend Jim Tucker and sitting in on some classes. (LR28/33-4)

Sterling Morrison: "He [Lou] tried the gay scene at Syracuse, which was really repellent. He had a little fling with some really flabby, effete fairy. I said 'Oh, man, Lou, if you want to do it, I hate to say it but let's find somebody attractive at least.'" (LR48)

OCTOBER 1959: ANDY WARHOL ATTENDS THE OPENING OF THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM.

The artist, Ellsworth Kelly, saw Warhol at the opening.

Ellsworth Kelly:

"Andy was dressed in a little dark suit and a white shirt and tie, very cute. Afterwards, some people - it may have been Robert Fraser, later a well-known English dealer and scene-maker - were talking about going to a leather bar, and Andy said, 'Oh, can I go, too? I want to go!'" (SC69)

DECEMBER 1 - 24, 1959: "ANDY WARHOL: WILD RASPBERRIES" AT THE BODLEY GALLERY.

Exhibited works were also featured in the December 1959 issue of Harper's Bazaar.

From Andy Warhol: The Bazaar Years 1951-1964:

"Warhol again returned to the pages of the magazine [Harper's Bazaar] for its December 1959 issue with illustrations for 'Noel Provincial' written by his friend Susie Frankfurt, with hand lettering by Warhol's mother. That month the Bodley Gallery exhibited these same drawings with different inedible recipes, calling the show 'Wild Raspberries,' a tongue-in-cheek allusion to Ingmar Bergman's film Wild Strawberries." (HB4)

See also: WILD RASPBERRIES (1959) in the Pre-Pop section.

 

to 1960 - 1962

Andy Warhol