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Abstract Expressionism
by Gary Comenas

abstract expressionism

| 1800-1899 | 1900-1909 | 1910-1919 | 1920-1924 | 1925-1927 | 1928-1929 | 1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934 | 1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 | 1939 |
| 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 | 1945 (a) | 1945 (b) | 1946 | 1947 | 1948 (a) | 1948 (b) | 1949 | 1950 | 1951 | 1952 | 1953 | 1954 | 1955 |
| 1956 | 1957 | 1958 | 1959 | 1960 | 1961 | 1962 | 1963 | 1964 | 1965 | 1966 | 1967 | 1968 | 1969 | 1970-1974 | 1975 - 1979 | 1980s+ |

3. Abstract Expressionism and The Beginnings of Pop
(1946-1959)

Abstract Expressionism1800-1938 | 1939-1945 | 1946-1959 | 1960-1969 | 1970 - end

(Click on a year or highlighted event)


1946: Existentialism

Increase of art galleries and sales.
Jean-Paul Sartre lectures in the U.S.
Robert Motherwell at Samuel Kootz.
Marcel Duchamp uses Benday dots.
Mark Rothko begins multiforms.
Barnett Newman meets Clyfford Still.
Thomas Hess starts working for Art News.
Elaine de Kooning has an abortion.
Franz Kline paints his first abstract painting.
E.W. Root purchases Mark Rothko's Omens of Gods and Birds.
Arshile Gorky's paintings are destroyed in a fire.
Clyfford Still solo show at Art of This Century Gallery.
Charles Egan opens an art gallery at 63 East 57th St.
Jackson Pollock resumes painting.
Arshile Gorky is admitted into Mount Sinai Hospital.
Winston Churchill launches the Cold War.
Arshile Gorky has an abdominoperinal resection at Mount Sinai.
The "Paris" issue of View magazine focuses on Existentialism.
Jackson Pollock signs a new contract with Peggy Guggenheim.
Jackson Pollock's third solo exhibition at Art of This Century.
Exhibition of Mark Rothko's watercolours at the Mortimer Brandt Gallery.
Arshile Gorky's second solo exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery.
André Breton arrives in Paris.
Willem de Kooning paints a backdrop.
Walter Lippman extols America as the center of Western civilization.
Fernand Léger extols American art in Lettres françaises.
George Waldemar calls on French art to recover its original virtues.
Franz Kline's wife is admitted to a mental hospital.
"Building a Modern Collection" exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery.
Philip Guston is featured in Life magazine.
"Modern Painting for A Country Estate: Important Paintings for Spacious Living" at the Samuel Kootz gallery.
Peggy Guggenheim donates Mark Rothko's Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
Mark Rothko leaves his part-time teaching job at the Center Academy.
Harold Rosenberg moves to the Springs.
Wolfgang Paalen stays with Robert Motherwell.
Mark Rothko meets Robert Motherwell.
Jackson Pollock converts a barn into a studio.
Art News reports on the picture boom.
Arshile Gorky and family travel to Crooked Run Farm.
Mark Rothko's solo exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Art.
Clyfford Still begins teaching at the California School of Fine Arts.
Mark Rothko visits San Francisco and Portland.
Betty Parsons Gallery opens at 15 East 57th Street.
Edward Alden Jewell on international art vs. universal art in The New York Times.
"Fourteen Americans" exhibition takes place at The Museum of Modern Art.
The American Legion commissions Franz Kline mural.
Mark Rothko exhibition at the Santa Barbara Museum.
Wolfgang Paalen one-man show at the Nierendorf Gallery.
Willem de Kooning rents a studio.
Willem de Kooning writes to his father.
The Gorkys return to New York from Virginia.
Fortune magazine publishes an article on the atomic explosion at Bikini, featuring two abstract paintings by Ralston Crawford.
Jean Paul Sartre's No Exit on Broadway.
"International Exhibition of Modern Art" in Paris.
Barnett Newman joins the Betty Parsons Gallery.
"Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting" (the "Whitney Annual") takes place at the Whitney Museum.
Arshile Gorky's wife, Agnes, begins Jungian psychotherapy and a diary.
Barnett Newman rents a studio at 114 Fourth Avenue, near Union Square.

1947: Drips

Gordon Onslow Ford moves to the Bay Area - and is joined by Wolfgang Paalen (Dynaton).
Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning move to Arizona.
Franz Kline paints white paintings.
Philip Guston and family return to Woodstock - and is visited by Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Barnett Newman and Adolph Gottlieb.
The Museum of Non-Objective Painting moves.
Adolph Gottlieb exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery.
Jackson Pollock's fourth solo exhibition at Art of This Century.
Barnett Newman curates "The Ideographic Picture."
Picasso's first post-war exhibition in the U.S. takes place.
Joan Miró arrives in the U.S.
"Bloodflames 1947" exhibition opens at the Hugo Gallery - includes Gorky and Matta.
Arshile Gorky solo show at the Julien Levy Gallery opens.
Mark Rothko's first solo exhibition at Betty Parsons Gallery.
The "Truman Doctrine" speech furthers the Cold War.
Max Ernst exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery.
Truman announces the Employee Loyalty Program.
"Introduction a la peinture moderne americaine" exhibition at the Galerie Maeght, Paris - includes Motherwell and Gottlieb with text by Harold Rosenberg.
Freedom Train.
Senate approves the Truman Doctrine.
"Large-Scale Modern Paintings" exhibition takes place at The Museum of Modern Art - includes Jackson Pollock's Mural.
Jean Paul Sartre's The Flies on Broadway.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
Pro-Soviet coup d'etat in Hungary.
Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century Gallery closes.
Jackson Pollock joins the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Jean Paul Sartre criticizes the Surrealists.
Barnett Newman quits.
Jackson Pollock drips.
Matta's first solo exhibition in France.
Mark Rothko teaches.
Clyfford Still solo exhibition in San Francisco.
George C. Marshall launches the Marshall Plan.
Arshile Gorky's wife and children leave for Maine for the summer.
Barnett Newman's father dies.
Arshile Gorky sells Torso to Mina Metzger for $1,200.
"Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme" at the Galerie Maeght.
Arshile Gorky makes a pass at Jeanne Reynal.
Arshile Gorky submits drawing to Politics.
The Eleventh National Congress of the French Communist Party takes place.
The American Federation of Teachers adopts as the theme for their annual (80th) congress, "Strengthening Education for National and World Security."
Arshile Gorky visits his family in Maine.
Agnes and the children return to Union Square.
Robert Motherwell, Pierre Chareau, Harold Rosenberg and John Cage collaborate on Possibilities magazine.
Wolfgang Paalen becomes a Mexican citizen.
Franz Kline moves to 52 East 9th Street.
Franz Kline becomes a regular at the Cedar Street Tavern.
Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors annual exhibition at Wildstein's.
First issue of Tiger's Eye is published.
Clement Greenberg praises Jackson Pollock in Horizon.
Jackson Pollock applies for a Guggenheim Fellowship.
Kay Sage exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery.
William Baziotes is awarded the Campana Prize for Cyclops.
"Abstract and Surrealist American Art: Fifty–Eighth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture," at the Art Institute of Chicago - includes Jackson Pollock and Barnett Newman.
"2nd Annual Exhibition of Paintings" at the Palace of the Legion of Honor.
Arshile Gorky and his family return to Connecticut.
Mark Rothko signs with the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Willem de Kooning starts painting black and white abstractions.
Philip Guston paints The Tormentors.
Jackson Pollock in Time magazine.
"1947 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary Painting," at the Whitney.
Arshile Gorky's father dies.
The Whitney Annual.
The U.S. Attorney General issues the first list of subversive organizations.
First and only issue of Possibilties magazine is published.
Mark Rothko's "The Romantics were Prompted" is published in Possiblities magazine.
Barnett Newman moves his studio to a storefront at 304 East 19th Street.

1948 (a): Zips

Franz Kline is listed in Who's Who in the East.
Barnett Newman begins his "zip" paintings.
Jackson Pollock shows his drip paintings for the first time.
"Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Sculptures, Watercolors and Drawings" at the Whitney Museum.
Arshile Gorky negotiates with Julien Levy.
Jean-Paul Sartre appears at Carnegie Hall.
Clement Greenberg discusses "The Situation at the Moment" in Partisan Review.
The U.S. Senate passes the Smith-Mundt Act.
Arshile Gorky appears in the Waterbury Sunday Republican.
Arshile Gorky appears in Life magazine.
Boston's Institute of Modern Art becomes the Institute of Contemporary Art.
Communists seize power in Czechoslovakia.
Arshile Gorky's final solo exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery.
Mark Rothko's second show at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
"The Decline of Cubism" by Clement Greenberg appears in Partisan Review no 3 (1948).
Clyfford Still tells Betty Parsons not to show his art to the public.
Arshile Gorky's wife's Great-Aunt Marion Hosmer dies.
Ethel Schwabacher visits the Gorkys at the Hebbeln house in Sherman, Connecticut.
The Soviet Union signs a "treaty of friendship" with Finland.
Henri Matisse: Retrospective Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery.
Frederick Keisler and Marcel Duchamp visit the Gorkys and Tanguys in Sherman.
Samuel Kootz gets Picasso and gives up his gallery.
Clyfford Still moves to New York.
The Sidney Janis Gallery opens.
The Marshall Plan is adopted by Congress.
Willem de Kooning's first solo show opens at the Charles Egan Gallery.
Elaine de Kooning writes for Art News.
Stephen Spender proclaims that Europeans "can still be swung to western culture" in the New York Times magazine.
"The Modern Artist Speaks" at The Museum of Modern Art.
"Paintings and Collages by Motherwell" at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
Jackson Pollock, Arshile Gorky and Mark Rothko at the XXIV Venice Biennale - includes Arshile Gorky and Mark Rothko.
Jackson Pollock gets a grant.
Jackson Pollock is re-introduced to Tony Smith.
"Survey of the Season" group show at the Betty Parsons Gallery.

1948 (b): Gorky

Arshile Gorky's wife has a birthday party.
Matta visits the Gorkys.
Gorky's wife has a secret rendezvous with Matta.
Julien Levy crashes his car while driving Arshile Gorky home.
Mark Rothko shows Harold Rosenberg his multiforms.
Willem de Kooning teaches at Black Mountain.
Arshile Gorky returns home from the hospital.
Arshile Gorky confronts Matta.
Arshile Gorky roams the streets of New York.
Agnes Gorky writes to the Schwabachers.
Arshile Gorky returns to Connecticut.
Saul Schary visits Arshile Gorky.
Saul Schary visits Gorky again.
Arshile Gorky commits suicide.
Arshile Gorky's obituary appears in The New York Times.
Jackson Pollock drawing in Partisan Review.
Charles Egan marries Betsy Duhrssen and has an affair with Elaine de Kooning.
The Whitney's annual show of American art includes de Kooning's Mailbox.
Jackson Pollock begins treatment for alcoholism.
The Subjects of the Artist School opens.
Philip Guston travels to Italy.
Mark Rothko's mother dies.
Life clarifies art.
André Breton excommunicates Matta.
Jeanne Reynal, Mosaics at the Julien Levy Gallery.
Harry Truman is re-elected President.
"Gorky" at the Julien Levy Gallery.
Willem de Kooning meets Mary Abbott.
"The Sublime is Now" by Barnett Newman appears in The Tiger's Eye.

1949: The Club

Barnett Newman completes seventeen paintings.
Robert Motherwell paints Granada.
Robert Motherwell divorces Maria Emilia Ferreira y Moyers.
Franz Kline works with a Bell-Opticon projector at Willem de Kooning's studio.
Mark Rothko paints vertically.
The second term of The Subjects of the Artist School begins.
Peggy Guggenheim tries but fails to get Jackson Pollock a solo show in Paris.
"Adolph Gottlieb" exhibition at the Jacques Seligmann Galleries.
Jackson Pollock's second exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Josef Albers exhibitions at the Egan and Janis galleries.
Jackson Pollock is photographed by Arnold Newman for Life magazine.
Willem de Kooning makes his first public statement about art.
David Hare, Sculpture exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery.
Mark Rothko exhibits his multiforms at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
The third (and final) term of The Subjects of the Artist School: Studio 35 begins.
Life magazine publishes photographs of Communist sympathizers.
Mark Rothko teaches at the California School of Fine Arts in San Francisco.
Barnett Newman and wife, Annalee, travel to Akron, Ohio.
Adolph Gottlieb helps start Forum 49 in Provincetown.
Philip Guston's wife joins him in Italy.
Jackson Pollock signs contract with Betty Parsons.
Jackson Pollock works in the studio of Roseanne Larkin.
Willem de Kooning is arrested for indecent exposure.
Detonation of an atomic bomb by Russia.
"Sculpture by Painters" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.
James T. Soby ask "Does Our Art Impress Europe?" in the Saturday Review.
Life magazine asks if Jackson Pollock is the greatest painter in the U.S.
Philip Guston returns to Woodstock.
"Artists: Man and Wife" exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
"The Intrasubjectives" exhibition at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
The Club opens.
Philip Guston and Bradley Walker Tomlin rent a loft in New York City.
Mark Rothko speaks as part of "Studio 35" series.
John Cage lectures about sand painting at The Club.
Jackson Pollock's third solo show at Betty Parson's Gallery takes place.
Samuel Kootz sells Christmas gifts.
Jackson Pollock exhitis Number 14, 1949 in the Whitney Annual.
The Club has a party - Pavia announces "The next half century will be ours."
Paul Klee exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.

1950: Woman I

Barnett Newman makes his first sculpture.
Robert Motherwell marries Betty Little.
"New Paintings by Adolph Gottlieb" at the Kootz Gallery.
The Museum of Modern Art acquires Number 1A, 1948 by Jackson Pollock.
Barnett Newman exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
"Seventeen Modern American Painters: The School of New York" exhibition at Yale.
Mark Rothko exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Elaine de Kooning meets Mark Rothko and Jeanne Reynal.
Clyfford Still returns to New York.
Barnett Newman's first solo exhibition opens at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Emmanuel Navaretta lives with Franz Kline.
"Black or White: Paintings by European and American Artists" at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
Jackson Pollock begins painting Untitled (Mural).
Jackson Pollock's therapist dies - Jackson drinks.
"Selected Paintings by the Late Arshile Gorky" exhibition at the Kootz Gallery - Gottlieb writes intro: "For him... the vital task was a wedding of abstraction and Surrealism."
Mark Rothko, recovering from a "breakdown," leaves New York for a five month tour of Europe.
Mark Rothko's Number 8, 1949 appears in Vogue magazine.
A symposium on the new art is held at Studio 35.
"Talent 1950" exhibition at the Kootz Gallery.
Mark Rothko writes to Richard Lippold inquiring about a job.
Artists protest the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the The New York Times.
The New York Herald Tribune attacks "The Irascible Eighteen" for "distortion of fact.
"Willem de Kooning paints Excavation.
Mark Rothko refuses to provide a self-statement for The Tiger's Eye and the Magazine of Art.
Mark Rothko's wife find out she's pregnant.
Willem de Kooning begins Woman I.
Jackson Pollock is photographed painting for Art News.
Alfred Barr chooses Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning (Excavation) and Arshile Gorky for the Venice Biennale.
Jackson Pollock, Tony Smith and Alfonso Ossorio discuss a Catholic Church.
Jackson Pollock meets Hans Namuth.
Bruno Alfieri compares Jackson Pollock to Picasso.
The Pollocks have a family reunion in the Springs.
Jackson Pollock exhibition in Venice.
Barnett Newman moves to a new studio.
The New Yorker publishes an interview with Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner.
"Young Painters in the U.S. and France" at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Mark Rothko returns to the U.S. from his European trip.
Willem de Kooning teaches at Yale.
Robert Motherwell joins the graduate faculty at Hunter College.
Hans Namuth begins filming Jackson Pollock painting.
Exhibition of mosaics by Jeanne Reynal opens at the Hugo Gallery.
Franz Kline's first one-man show in New York.
"Young Painters in U.S. & France" exhibition takes place at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Whitney Annual.
"Motherwell: First Exhibition of Paintings in Three Years" at the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery.
Jackson Pollock appears in Time magazine.
Jackson Pollock starts drinking again.
The Irascibles sit for their Life magazine photo session.
Jackson Pollock's fourth solo show at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Mark Rothko gets a job and a DeSoto.
Mark Rothko receives a financial statement from Betty Parsons.
Mark Rothko's daughter, Kate, is born.

1951: The Ninth Street Show

Viking Press publishes Abstract Painting, Background and American Phase by Thomas Hess.
Wittenborn-Schultz publishes Modern Artists in America (Ser. 1) edited by Robert Motherwell and Ad Reinhardt.
Philip Guston paints White Painting.
"Contemporary Paintings in the United States" at the County Museum in Los Angeles.
Jackson Pollock spends a drunken winter in New York.
"Gottlieb: New Paintings" at the Kootz Gallery.
Arshile Gorky memorial exhibition opens at the Whitney Museum.
"Seventeen Modern American Painters: The School of New York" exhibition at the Frank Perls Gallery in Beverly Hills, California.
Cecil Beaton uses Jackson Pollock's paintings for a fashion spread in American Vogue magazine.
"Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America" at The Museum of Modern Art.
The Irascibles appear in Life magazine.
Mark Rothko takes a class at the Art Students' League.
Mark Rothko begins teaching at Brooklyn College.
Willem de Kooning explains "What Abstract Art Means to Me."
Jackson Pollock visits Chicago.
Jackson Pollock's work appears in Vogue magazine.
Jackson Pollock shows in Paris.
Willem de Kooning's second show at the Egan Gallery.
Mark Rothko's final exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Barnett Newman's second solo exhibition opens.
Barnett Newman, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Clyfford Still ask Betty Parsons to drop her other artists.
Art News publishes "Pollock Paints a Picture."
Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner return to the the Springs, East Hampton - Pollock brings back figuration.
"Ninth Street Show" at 60 East 9th Street.
Robert Motherwell teaches at the summer session of Black Mountain College.
Sidney Janis supports Willem de Kooning.
"Forty American Painters, 1940-1950" at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Jackson Pollock paints it black.
Hans Namuth film of Jackson Pollock premieres at The Museum of Modern Art.
Selections from 5 New York Private Collections at The Museum of Modern Art.
"60th Annual American Exhibition: Paint and Sculpture" at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Clyfford Still announces that he will no longer exhibit his paintings.
Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner stay in New York for two months.
Lee Krasner's first solo show at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
Franz Kline's second solo exhibition at the Charles Egan Gallery.
Jackson Pollock's fifth solo show at the Betty Parsons Gallery.
"American Vanguard Art for Paris Exhibition," at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Jackson Pollock wrecks his car.

1952: Black Mountain

Max Ernst returns to France.
Adolph Gottlieb designs an Ark curtain.
Adolph Gottlieb designs and supervises construction of 1300 square foot stained glass facade for The Milton Steinberg Memorial Center.
Adolph Gottlieb's first "Imaginary Landscape" shown at the Kootz Gallery.
Franz Kline helps paint 'Vote for Adlai' signs.
Philip Guston has a solo show at the Peridot Gallery in New York.
"Adolph Gottlieb" Exhibition at the Kootz Gallery.
The Museum of Non-Objective Painting changes its name to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.
Jackson Pollock tries Grant Mark's Emulsion.
Jackson Pollock's contract with Betty Parsons expires.
Willem de Kooning stops painting Woman I and starts again.
Clement Greenberg defends Barnett Newman.
Mark Rothko rents a studio at 106 West 53rd Street.
Clement Greenberg on "Jackson Pollock's New Style" in Harper's Bazaar.
"Jackson Pollock 1948 - 1951" exhibition opens in Paris.
Mark Rothko rejects offer to teach at Black Mountain College.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery.
"Fifteen Americans" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.
Jackson Pollock joins the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Willem de Kooning stays with Leo Castelli and Ileana Sonnabend in the Hamptons.
Jack Tworkov arrives at Black Mountain College.
Franz Kline arrives at Black Mountain College.
John Cage's Theater Piece No. 1 is performed at Black Mountain College.
Barnett Newman moves his studio to 100 Front Street.
Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman attend the 4th Annual Woodstock Art Conference.
Willem de Kooning moves to 88 East Tenth Street.
Willem de Kooning begins an affair with Joan Ward.
Jackson Pollock's first solo exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
"A Retrospective Show of the Paintings of Jackson Pollock" at Bennington College in Vermont.
"Kline Paints a Picture" by Robert Goodnough is published in Art News.
"The American Action Painters" by Harold Rosenberg is published in Art News.
Mark Rothko refuses to participate in the Whitney Annual.

1953: Benders

Adolph Gottlieb resigns from the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors.
Yves Tanguy and Kay Sage tour France and Italy.
Second Annual Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture at the Stable Gallery.
Robert Motherwell's daughter is born.
Adolph Gottlieb designs Ark curtain for Congregation Beth El, Springfield, MA.
Adolph Gottlieb participates in the conference "Art Education and the Creative Process" sponsored by the Museum of Modern Art.
Philip Guston exhibition at the Egan Gallery.
"Imaginary Landscapes and Seascapes by Adolph Gottlieb" at the Kootz Gallery.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Fine Arts Club of Chicago.
Richard Stankiewicz solo exhibition at the Hansa Gallery.
Burton and Emily Tremaine purchase Mark Rothko's Number 8, 1952.
Willem de Kooning Retrospective at the Workshop Center for the Arts in Washington and School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.
Robert Rauschenberg erases a de Kooning.
Willem de Kooning drinks.
"De Kooning Paints a Picture" by Thomas Hess appears in Art News.
De Kooning's first show at the Sidney Janis Gallery opens.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery in New York.
Franz Kline moves to the top floor of 32 East 10th Street.
Philip Guston and Franz Kline exhibit in a group show at the Fine Arts Festival in Greensboro, North Carolina.
"12 Peintres et Sculpteurs Américains Contemporains" at the Musée national d'art moderne, Paris.
Jackson Pollock drives on the wrong side of the road.
Bradley Walker Tomlin dies in New York City.
The Rothkos take on a lodger.
Barnett Newman buys one of his own paintings.
Alfred Jensen visits Mark Rothko.
Franz Kline teaches at the Pratt Institute.
Jackson Pollock shows at the Whitney Annual.
Jackson Pollock is found in a drunken stupor outside a police station.

1954: The Red House

Barnett Newman's wife takes on a second job.
Ruth Kligman tells a friend that Jackson Pollock would fall in love with her - if he knew her.
"The New Decade: 35 American Painters and Sculptors" at the Whitney Museum.
Franz Kline solo show at the Institute of Design in Chicago.
"Nine American Painters Today" exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Jackson Pollock's second solo exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Willem de Kooning has an affair with Marisol Escobar.
Franz Kline and Josef Albers participate in an American Abstract Artists forum at The Museum of Modern Art.
Mark Rothko is informed by Brooklyn College that his contract will not be renewed.
Mark Rothko moves to 102 West 54th Street.
"Adolph Gottlieb: An Exhibition of Recent Paintings" at the Kootz Gallery.
Franz Kline's third solo show at the Charles Egan Gallery.
"A Retrospective Show of the Paintings of Adolph Gottlieb" at the Bennington College Gallery, Bennington, Vermont.
Huntington Hartford takes out an ad to protest modern art with the heading "The Public Be Damned?"
The de Koonings and Franz Kline rent a red house on Long Island.
Publication of Ad Reinhardt article causes Barnett Newman to sue.
Willem de Kooning's mother visits the red house and Manhattan.
Willem de Kooning paints "abstract urban landscapes."
Gallery of Art Interpretation: Recent Paintings by Mark Rothko, Contemporary American" exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Jackson Pollock's mother has a series of heart attacks.
Robert Motherwell solo exhibition at the Samuel Kootz Gallery.

1955: In Denial

Yves Tanguy dies.
Robert Motherwell's second daughter, Lise, is born.
Franz Kline lives in the East Village before moving to East 10th Street.
Philip Guston joins the Sidney Janis Gallery.
John Ferren becomes responsible for arranging the panels at The Club.
Barnett Newman moves to Brooklyn Heights.
Ben Heller buys Yellow, Green (1953) by Mark Rothko.
Jackson Pollock breaks his ankle again.
"Fifty Years of American Art" in Paris.
Mark Rothko's first show at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
"The New Decade: 35 American Painters and Sculptors" exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art.
"American-Type Painting" by Clement Greenberg appears in Partisan Review.
Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner begin therapy.
Jackson Pollock gets a passport.
Mark Rothko teaches at the summer session of University of Colorado in Boulder.
Lee Krasner exhibition at the Stable Gallery.
Willem de Kooning denies he is an Abstract Expressionist.
Jackson Pollock's third solo exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery - includes Pollock's last oil painting.
Fortune magazine publishes "The Great International Art Market."
Barnett Newman exhibits again.

1956: Pollock

Barnett Newman doesn't paint.
Mark Rothko moves his studio.
Mark Rothko sells.
"Modern Art in the U.S." exhibition at the Tate Gallery in London - includes Rothko, Pollock, Still and Motherwell.
Joan Ward gives birth to Willem de Kooning's daughter, Johanna Lisbeth de Kooning.
Alfred Jensen visits Mark Rothko in his studio.
Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt battle it out in court.
Time magazine refers to Jackson Pollock as "Jack the Dripper."
Jackson Pollock meets Ruth Kligman at the Cedar Street Tavern.
Franz Kline solo exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
Willem de Kooning's second one-man show opens at the Sidney Janis Gallery - and sells out.
Donald Blinken buys Mark Rothko's Three Reds (1955).
Jackson Pollock is chosen by The Museum of Modern Art to open a series of exhibitions on artists in mid-career.
"Twelve Americans" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.
Jackson Pollock rejects label of "Abstract Expressionism."
Ruth Kligman and Jackson Pollock break up.
Jackson Pollock at the Cedar.
Ruth Kligman moves to Sag Harbor.
Mark Rothko is bedridden for two months.
Franz Kline stays in Provincetown with Al Leslie.
Franz Kline's work is shown at the 28th Venice Biennale.
Ruth Kligman sleeps with Jackson Pollock in the barn with Lee Krasner in the house.
Jackson Pollock asks Ruth Kligman to move in after Lee Krasner decides to leave for Europe.
Lee Krasner goes to Europe.
Jackson Pollock and Ruth Kligman attend Clement Greenberg's dinner party.
Jackson Pollock tells Ruth Kligman that Lee Krasner is coming back.
Ruth Kligman tells Jackson Pollock she is going to New York for a few days.
Ruth Kligman arrives in New York.
Ruth Kligman has lunch with Edith Metzger.
Ruth Kligman cheats on Pollock - with a Jewish comedian.
Ruth Kligman returns to the Springs.
Jackson Pollock and Edith Metzger die in a car accident.
Willem de Kooning learns of Jackson Pollock's death.
Jackson Pollock's funeral is held.
Donald Blinken buys Mark Rothko's Blue over Orange.
"An Evening for Jackson Pollock at The Club" takes place.
"Jackson Pollock" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.

1957: Americans in Action

Sidney Janis becomes Robert Motherwell's exclusive dealer.
Robert Motherwell separates from Betty Little.
Franz Kline lives at 473 6th Avenue.
Franz Kline and Philip Guston go on a drunken spree while serving as jurors for the "Exhibition Momentum '57" in Chicago.
Tanager Gallery artists plan a series of exhibitions and a book (unsuccessfully).
Ben Heller buys Barnett Newman.
Leo Castelli opens an art gallery.
Mark Rothko declines an invitation to take part in the Whitney Annual (again).
Mark Rothko sells 17 paintings for $19,133.00.
Adolph Gottlieb teaches at the Pratt Institute and UCLA.
"Paintings by Mark Rothko, Bradley Tomlin and Kenjo Okada" at the Phillips Collection museum.
"Adolph Gottlieb" at the Martha Jackson Gallery - first showing of Burst painting.
Mark Rothko works as Visiting Artist at Tulane University in New Orleans.
Picasso 75th Anniversary exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art.
Picasso 75th Anniversary exhibition on the third floor of The Museum of Modern Art.
"American Painting 1945 - 1957" at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
Franz Kline moves from 473 6th Avenue to 242 West 14th Street.
Franz Kline paints in John Little's barn in East Hampton.
Willem de Kooning begins an affair with Ruth Kligman.
Abstract Expressionists are represented at the IV Bienal de São Paulo.
Elaine de Kooning teaches at the University of New Mexico.
John and Dominique de Menil buy Mark Rothko's painting, Number 10, 1957.
Discussion panel "The Accidental in Art" takes place at The Club.
"Two Americans in Action: Franz Kline and Mark Rothko" by Elaine de Kooning is published in the Art News Annual
.
Barnett Newman and wife spend Thanksgiving with Lee Krasner on Long Island.
Barnett Newman has a heart attack.
The Whitney Annual includes a Je t'aime painting by Robert Motherwell.
"An Exhibition of Oil Paintings by Adolph Gottlieb" at The Jewish Museum.
Art News publishes Mark Rothko's response to Elaine de Kooning's article.
Willem de Kooning has a brief affair with Shirley Stoler.

1958: Beginnings of Pop

"Has the Situation Changed?" panel discussion takes place at The Club - Allan Kaprow calls painting a bore.
Robert Motherwell, Philip Guston, Ad Reinhardt, Harold Rosenberg and Jack Tworkov participate in "The Concept of the New" panel at the Philadelphia Museum School of Art.
Franz Kline makes "sfumato" paintings: Siegfried and Requiem.
Barnett Newman recovers from heart attack.
"Adolph Gottlieb: New York" at the Andre Emmerich Gallery.
Mark Rothko's second (and last) show at Sidney Janis.
Jasper Johns' first solo show at the Leo Castelli Gallery.
Barnett Newman has canvases stretched for First Station (1958) and Second Station (1958) of his Stations of the Cross series.
Willem de Kooning takes Ruth Kligman to Cuba and hangs out with Gregory Corso in Rome.
Lee Krasner exhibits at the Martha Jackson Gallery.
Allan Kaprow exhibition at the Hansa Gallery.
Franz Kline solo exhibition at Galleria del Naviglio in Milan.
Franz Kline's second solo exhibition at the Sidney Janis Gallery.
"The New American Painting" opens at the Kunsthalle Basel - "the only greatness here is in the size of the canvases."
Barnett Newman retrospective at Bennington Collge in Vermont. Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning, Philip Guston, Franz Kline and Robert Motherwell sign an agreement authorizing Bernard Reis to represent them in their dealings with Sidney Janis.
During 1958 Mark Rothko sold 13 paintings earning him $20,666 after 1/3 gallery commission was deducted.
Life magazine covers Expressionism.
Willem de Kooning hires Bernard Reis as his accountant.
First magazine article devoted to Barnett Newman appears in Art News.
Sidney Janis confirms Mark Rothko's commission for the Seagram murals.
Mark Rothko is featured at the United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale.
Franz Kline orders a black Thunderbird.
Rothko spends the summer in his newly purchased house in Provincetown.
Robert Motherwell marries Helen Frankenthaler.
Mark Rothko rents a studio space to begin working on the Seagram murals.
Mark Rothko refuses a prize from the Guggenheim Museum.
Barnett Newman moves for the last time.
Mark Rothko offers up a recipe for art - "There must be a clear preoccupation with death."
"Jackson Pollock" exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, London.
The 1958 Pittsburgh Bicentennial International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture takes place at the Carnegie Institute.

1959: The Seagram Murals

Hedy Lamarr writes to Franz Kline.
Mark Rothko earns $61,130.
Willem de Kooning moves his studio to 831 Broadway.
The Museum of Modern Art becomes the first American museum to own a work by Barnett Newman.
Thomas B. Hess publishes a monograph on Willem de Kooning.
"Adolph Gottlieb: New Paintings" at the André Emmerich Gallery.
Franz Kline buys a house.
"Barnett Newman: A Selection 1946 - 1952" opens at French and Co.
"Gottlieb: Ecole de New York" at the Galerie Rive Droite, Paris.
"Adolph Gottlieb" exhibition at the Paul Kantor Gallery.
Exhibition of de Kooning's new large abstractions at Sidney Janis opens.
Mark Rothko changes his legal name from Marcus Rothkowitz to Mark Rothko.
"The New American Painting as shown in 8 European Countries 1958-1959" exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art - The New York Times refers to de Kooning's Woman as "horrendous."
Mark Rothko and his wife, Mell, write their wills.
"Is There a New Academy?" is published in Art News.
Mark Rothko sails to Europe and discusses the Seagram Murals.
Willem de Kooning and Ruth Kligman rent a house in Southampton.
Aaron Siskind visits Franz Kline in Provincetown.
"Adolph Gottlieb: Paintings 1949 - 1959" at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London.
Willem de Kooning buys 4.2 acres of land in the Springs.
The Four Seasons restaurant opens in the Seagram building.
Willem de Kooning stays in Rome with Ruth Kligman.
Barnett Newman travels to Canada to head summer art workshop.
Mark Rothko and family leave London to return to the United States.
Joan Ward moves to San Francisco, taking her and Willem de Kooning's daughter with her.
Wolfgang Paalen commits suicide in Mexico.
Allan Kaprow's 18 Happenings in Six Parts takes place at the Reuben Gallery in New York.
Abstract Expressionists appear in Life magazine.
"Sixteen Americans" at The Museum of Modern Art concentrates on color field work of Frank Stella - also includes nine Jasper Johns and seven Rauschenberg Combines.
Willem De Kooning and Ruth Kligman argue in Italy.
Mark Rothko backs out of the Seagram deal.

to page four

abstract expressionism

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